Returns the square of the argument.

The `sqr`

function calculates the square of * z*, i.e.

`z`

`z`

Returns *e* raised to the power of the argument.

The `exp`

function is used to raise *e*, Euler's constant, to the power of * z*.
This is the same as e^z.

`z`

Returns the square root of the argument.

The `sqrt`

function calculates the square root of * z*, i.e.

`z`

`z`

`z`

Returns the `n`

^{th} root of the argument.

The `root`

function calculates the `n`

^{th} root of `z`

.
* n* and

`z`

`z`

When the calculation is done with real numbers, the function is only defined for * z*<0 if

`n`

`root`

is defined for the whole complex plane except at the pole `n`

`z`

`n`

Returns the natural logarithm of the argument.

The `ln`

function calculates the logarithm of * z* with base

`z`

`z`

`z`

`z`

Returns the base 10 logarithm of the argument.

The `log`

function calculates the logarithm of * z* with base 10.

`z`

`z`

`z`

`z`

Returns the base * n* logarithm of the argument.

The `logb`

function calculates the logarithm of * z* with base

`n`

`z`

`z`

`z`

`z`

`n`